Llama Drama: Critical Vulnerability CVE-2024-34359 Threatening Your Software Supply Chain

Key Points

  • The critical vulnerability CVE-2024-34359 has been discovered by retr0reg in the “llama_cpp_python” Python package.
  • This vulnerability allows attackers to execute arbitrary code from the misuse of the Jinja2 template engine.
  • Over 6k AI models om HuggingFace using llama_cpp_python and Jinja2 are vulnerable.
  • A fix has been issued in v0.2.72
  • This vulnerability underscores the importance of security in AI systems and software supply chain.

Imagine downloading a seemingly harmless AI model from a trusted platform like Hugging Face, only to discover that it has opened a backdoor for attackers to control your system. This is the potential risk posed by CVE-2024-34359. This critical vulnerability affects the popular llama_cpp_python package, which is used for integrating AI models with Python. If exploited, it could allow attackers to execute arbitrary code on your system, compromising data and operations. Over 6,000 models on Hugging Face were potentially vulnerable, highlighting the broad and severe impact this could have on businesses, developers, and users alike. This vulnerability underscores the fact that AI platforms and developers have yet to fully catch up to the challenges of supply chain security.

Understanding Jinja2 and llama_cpp_python

Jinja2: This library is a popular Python tool for template rendering, primarily used for generating HTML. Its ability to execute dynamic content makes it powerful but can pose a significant security risk if not correctly configured to restrict unsafe operations.

`llama_cpp_python`: This package integrates Python’s ease of use with C++’s performance, making it ideal for complex AI models handling large data volumes. However, its use of Jinja2 for processing model metadata without enabling necessary security safeguards exposes it to template injection attacks.

[image: jinja and llama]

What is CVE-2024-34359?

CVE-2024-34359 is a critical vulnerability stemming from the misuse of the Jinja2 template engine within the `llama_cpp_python` package. This package, designed to enhance computational efficiency by integrating Python with C++, is used in AI applications. The core issue arises from processing template data without proper security measures such as sandboxing, which Jinja2 supports but was not implemented in this instance. This oversight allows attackers to inject malicious templates that execute arbitrary code on the host system.

The Implications of an SSTI Vulnerability

The exploitation of this vulnerability can lead to unauthorized actions by attackers, including data theft, system compromise, and disruption of operations. Given the critical role of AI systems in processing sensitive and extensive datasets, the impact of such vulnerabilities can be widespread, affecting everything from individual privacy to organizational operational integrity.

The Risk Landscape in AI and Supply Chain Security

This vulnerability underscores a critical concern: the security of AI systems is deeply intertwined with the security of their supply chains. Dependencies on third-party libraries and frameworks can introduce vulnerabilities that compromise entire systems. The key risks include:

  • Extended Attack Surface: Integrations across systems mean that a vulnerability in one component can affect connected systems.
  • Data Sensitivity: AI systems often handle particularly sensitive data, making breaches severely impactful.
  • Third-party Risk: Dependency on external libraries or frameworks can introduce unexpected vulnerabilities if these components are not securely managed.

A Growing Concern

With over 6,000 models on the HuggingFace platform using `gguf` format with templates—thus potentially susceptible to similar vulnerabilities—the breadth of the risk is substantial. This highlights the necessity for increased vigilance and enhanced security measures across all platforms hosting or distributing AI models.


The vulnerability identified has been addressed in version 0.2.72 of the llama-cpp-python package, which includes a fix enhancing sandboxing and input validation measures. Organizations are advised to update to this latest version promptly to secure their systems.


The discovery of CVE-2024-34359 serves as a stark reminder of the vulnerabilities that can arise at the confluence of AI and supply chain security. It highlights the need for vigilant security practices throughout the lifecycle of AI systems and their components. As AI technology becomes more embedded in critical applications, ensuring these systems are built and maintained with a security-first approach is vital to safeguard against potential threats that could undermine the technology’s benefits.

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